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Kyrgyzstan is a country with picturesque mountainous nature. It is located between latitudes of 39 and 43 degrees in north and between longitudes of 69 and 80 degrees in east.
Total area of the country is 198.5 thousand square kilometers. The territory of the country is placed between altitudes of 394 m and 7439 m above sea level. Average altitude of the territory is equaled to higher than 2000 meters. About 90% of the territory stands at the altitude of higher than 1500 meters.
Kyrgyzstan has population of 5.3 million people, out of which Kyrgyz are – 66.9%, Uzbeks - 14.14%, Russians – 10.65%. Overall there are more than 80 nationalities living in Kyrgyzstan.
National language is Kirghiz, official language – Russian.
National currency in Kyrgyzstan – som.
The relief of Kyrgyzstan is mainly mountainous. Most of the territory of Kyrgyzstan is covered by 86 mountain ridges. Wavy plains called – «syrts» are located in the east part of Interior Tien Shan between sloping flank of ranges. The highest peaks Kyrgyzstan are: Pobeda Peak (7439 m), Lenin Peak (7134 m), Khan Tengri Peak (6995 m), Drujba Peak (6800 m).
There are a lot of glaciers on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. Number of officially registered glaciers with area of more than 0.1 square kilometers is equaled to 8 thousand.
The glaciers occupy 4.2% of the territory of Kyrgyzstan. They are situated in the highest mountains parts not lower then 2850-2900 m above forests and alpine meadows.
The largest glaciers are: Enilchek, Kaindy, Korjenevskii, Mushketov, Semenov, Petrov.
Glaciers and mountainous snow melting is the main source for the majority of mountainous rivers in Kyrgyzstan. The rivers have very turbulent flow at the upper sources in the mountains. The largest rivers in Kyrgyzstan are: Naryn, Karadaria, Chatkal, Kyzyl-Suu (western), Chu, Talas, Sary-Djaz.
Kyrgyzstan obtains big reserves of fresh groundwater, mineral and thermal water. Mineral and thermal waters of Kyrgyzstan differ by their variability and richness. The carbonic acid waters like Borzhomi, Arzni and Yessentuki were discovered at Fergana ridge. The water like Narzan is more often in the northern flank of Kyrgyz Ala-Too, in the Kabak-Too Mountains, at Atbashi ridge close to Chatyr-Kul Lake. Total mineralization of carbonic acid water fluctuates from 1 to 40 gram/liter and content of carbonic acids fluctuates from 500 to 2500 mg/l.
Kyrgyzstan has a very varied climate. In some regions it is acutely continental, in others close to maritime climate which is impacted by presence of large Issyk-Kul Lake and mountainous relief. Most of the territory of Kyrgyzstan has a temperate climate. The southern part of Kyrgyzstan has a subtropical climate. Annual and daily temperatures are smoothed and sometimes there are observed the signs of aridity.
Seasons are clearly marked. The length of the winter-day is 9 hours and summer-day 15 hours. There are more precipitation and low temperature in the mountains than in the plains. Non-freezing Issyk-Kul lake softly impacts on temperature in the lake’s zone. In winter time temperature in this area is 3°C-5°C higher than in other regions and there is not harassing heat in summer time. Minimal absolute air temperature in winter reacheses -50°C in Ak-Sai. Maximal absolute air temperature in summer reacheses +43°C - +44°C in Chu valley and southern part of Kyrgyzstan. The average wind’s speed is not too high – 1-3 mps.